Web Technology working and Terminologies

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What is a server?

server is a computer connected to a network of other workstations called ‘clients’. Client computers request information from the server over the network. Servers tend to have more storage, memory and processing power than a normal workstation.

What are the types of server hardware?

What is rack in server?

rack server, also called a rack-mounted server, is a computer dedicated to use as a server and designed to be installed in a framework called a rack. The rack contains multiple mounting slots called bays, each designed to hold a hardware unit secured in place with screws.

What is the Tower Server?

The tower server is the most common server we can see. Its appearance looks like our PC host but it is bigger because it has many slots, which are needed to extend server’s functions.

In practical terms, 4 hard drives and a processor should suffice for an organisation with 25 workstations, although a tower server can accommodate up to 6 drives and two processors. A rack server is designed to be positioned in a bay, which enables you to stack various devices on top of each other in a large tower

What is a blade server ?

A blade server is a modular server that allows multiple servers to be housed in a smaller area. These servers are physically thin and typically only have CPUs, memory, integrated network controllers, and sometimes storage drives built in. Any video cards or other components that are needed will be facilitated by the server chassis. Which is where the blades slide into. Blade servers are often seen in large data centers.  Due to their ability to fit so many servers into one single rack and their ability to provide a high processing power.

The main difference between rack server & blade server is A Rack Server is an independent server installed in the case, while Blade Servers need to work with each other in one chassis.

Videoà https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpR_m2_7XDI

What are the different types of server software?

Servers can provide various functionalities, often called “services”, such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers.

There are many types of servers that all perform different functions. Many networks contain one or more of the common server types:

What is webserver?

A web server is software and hardware that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and other protocols to respond to client requests made over the World Wide Web. The main job of a web server is to display website content through storing, processing and delivering webpages to users. Besides HTTP, web servers also support SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), used for email, file transfer and storage.

HTTP is a connectionless text based protocol. Clients (web browsers) send requests to web servers for web elements such as web pages and images. After the request is serviced by a server, the connection between client and server across the Internet is disconnected. A new connection must be made for each request.

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). It is used for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.[1][2] In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS) or, formerly, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). 

What is webhosting?

Web hosting is an online service that enables you to publish your website or web application on the Internet. When you sign up for a web hosting service, you basically rent some space on a physical server where you can store all the files and data necessary for your website to work properly.

Different Types of Web Hosting Services

Shared hosting Server

One’s website is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few sites to hundreds of websites. Typically, all domains may share a common pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU.

Virtual Private Server

Also known as a Virtual Private Server (VPS), divides server resources into virtual servers, where resources can be allocated in a way that does not directly reflect the underlying hardware. VPS will often be allocated resources based on a one server to many VPSs relationship, however virtualisation may be done for a number of reasons, including the ability to move a VPS container between servers. The users may have root access to their own virtual space. Customers are sometimes responsible for patching and maintaining the server (unmanaged server) or the VPS provider may provide server admin tasks for the customer (managed server).

Dedicated hosting Server

The user gets his or her own Web server and gains full control over it (user has root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, the user typically does not own the server. One type of dedicated hosting is self-managed or unmanaged. This is usually the least expensive for dedicated plans. The user has full administrative access to the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own dedicated server.

What is IP and  IP Address?

IP:- Stands for “Internet Protocol.” IP provides a standard set of rules for sending and receiving data over the Internet. It allows devices running on different platforms to communicate with each other as long as they are connected to the Internet.

IP Address:-

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998.

IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6.

What is Domain Name and Domain Name System / Server ?

Domain Name:

A domain name is a string of text that maps to a numeric IP address, used to access a website from client software. In plain English, a domain name is the text that a user types into a browser window to reach a particular website. For instance, the domain name for Google is ‘google.com’.

DNS:-

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. The process of DNS resolution involves converting a hostname (such as www.example.com) into a computer-friendly IP address (such as 192.168.1.1). An IP address is given to each device on the Internet, and that address is necessary to find the appropriate Internet device – like a street address is used to find a particular home. When a user wants to load a webpage, a translation must occur between what a user types into their web browser (example.com) and the machine-friendly address necessary to locate the example.com webpage.

What is URL?

URL is the short form for Uniform Resource Locator, a website URL is the location of a specific website, page, or file on the Internet.

What is name server?

A name server is a web server that helps to identify location of a domain name on the internet .They translate into and map human readable domain names with respective IP addresses (four digit numerals), of the respective web server (hosting that particular site) to find a website, communicate across the network and return to the desired web address. They point domain name to the company that controls its DNS settings- company with which the domain name is registered.

Ns1 is the first server listed as the primary server, while the second one-Ns2 is used as a backup server, if, the first server is not responding.

What is A record?

An A record (Address Record) points a domain or subdomain to an IP address. For example, you can use it for store.website.com or blog.website.com and point it to where you have your store. This is a common practice for people who use Amazon, eBay, Tumblr, etc.

For example, an A Record is used to point a logical domain name, such as “google.com”, to the IP address of Google’s hosting server, “74.125.224.147”.

These records point traffic from example.com (indicated by @) and ftp.example.com to the IP address 66.147.224.236. They also point localhost.example.com to the server that the domain is hosted on. This allows the end user to type in a human-readable domain, while the computer can continue to work with numbers.

A records only hold IPv4 addresses. If a website has an IPv6 address, it will instead use an ‘AAAA’ record.

Here is an example of an A record:

example.comrecord type:value:TTL
@A192.0.2.114400

The ‘@’ symbol in this example indicates that this is a record for the root domain, and the ‘14400’ value is the TTL (time to live), listed in seconds. The default TTL for A records is 14400 seconds. This means that if an A record gets updated, it takes 240 minutes (14400 seconds) to take effect.

……. SOA record & lots more stuff …….

 foo.com.      IN        NS        ns1.bar.com.

 foo.com.      IN        A         192.168.100.1

 ……. More A/CNAME/AAAA/etc. records …….

A Record = “The host called foo.com lives at address 192.168.100.1”
NS Record = “If you want to know about hosts in the foo.com zone, ask the name server ns1.bar.com”

What is FTP?

File transfer protocol (FTP) is a set of rules that computers follow for the transferring of files from one system to another over the internet. It may be used by a business to transfer files from one computer system to another, or websites may use FTP to upload or download files from a website’s server.

What is ISP?

The term internet service provider (ISP) refers to a company that provides access to the internet to both personal and business customers. ISPs make it possible for their customers to surf the web, shop online, conduct business, and connect with family and friends—all for a fee.

How does web browsers work?

A browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, video and other files. As a client/server model, the browser is the client run on a computer that contacts the Web server and requests information. The Web server sends the information back to the Web browser which displays the results on the computer or other Internet-enabled device that supports a browser.

https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2018/09/inside-browser-part1
https://medium.com/@monica1109/how-does-web-browsers-work-c95ad628a509

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